RMAN Backup Format Specifier

Format specifiers in RMAN are placeholders that dynamically generate filenames and directory paths based on predefined patterns and parameters. They allow DBAs to define flexible naming conventions and storage locations for backup files, making it easier to organize and manage backup sets.

Format specifiers are denoted by percent (%) signs followed by one or more characters representing specific attributes or values. For example, %t inserts a timestamp, %s inserts the backup set sequence number, and %d inserts the database name.

The following substitiion variables can be used:

%a Database Activition ID
%b Base name - only vaied for SET NEWNAME and image copies
%c Backup piece copy number
%d Database name
%D Day of month (DD)
%e Archive log sequence number
%f Absolute file number
%F System-generated name. See below
%h Archived redo log thread number
%M Month (MM)
%N Tablespace name
%n Database name - Right padded with 'x' character e.g. TESTxxxx
%p Piece number within backup set
%s Backup set number
%t Backup set timestamp. Use with %s to provide unique name
%u Short system generated file name. See below
%U Long System generated file name. See below
%Y Year (YYYY)
%% Percent (%) character

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